Physical Chemistry

General topics: Concept of atoms and molecules, Mole concept, Chemical formulae, neutralisation, and displacement reactions, Balanced chemical equations,Dalton’s atomic theory, Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.

Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale of temperature, iDeviation from ideality, van der Waals equation,deal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases, average, Law of partial pressures, Vapour pressure, Diffusion of gases, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers, de Broglie hypothesis, Uncertainty principle, Qualitative quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom, shapes of s, p and d orbitals,Wave-particle duality, Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36), Aufbau principle, Orbital overlap and covalent bond, Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only, Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, Hydrogen bond, Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only), VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).

Energetics: First law of thermodynamics, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy, Hess’s law, Internal energy, Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization, Entropy, Free energy, Second law of thermodynamics, Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action, Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure), Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions, Significance of ΔG and ΔG0 in chemical equilibrium, Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts), Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cell reactions, Nernst equation and its relation to ΔG, Electrochemical series, Standard electrode potentials, emf of galvanic cells, Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductivity, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, Kohlrausch’s law; Concentration cells.

Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions, Rate constant, First order reactions, Order of reactions, Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid state: Classification of solids,  seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, α, β, ), crystalline state,close-packed structure of solids (cubic), Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices, point defects.

Solutions: Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms), Elementary ideas of emulsions, Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).

Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars, Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), Properties of α, β and rays, carbon dating, Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions, Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio.